The date palm (phoenix dactylifera) is also more simply called the date palm. The date palm is a monocotyledonous plant from the Arecaceae family. It gives famous fruits that make the heyday of North Africa and Saharan oases, dates. The date palm lives according to the popular adage "" feet in the water and head in the sun "". Can reach 15 to 30 m high, it is the tree layer and provides shade for fruit trees and vegetable gardens under its dominance. The trunk of the date palm, cylindrical, carries the stipe (nesting of tough leaf seeds) and ends in a crown of palms. The leaves are pinnate, fine and 4 to 7 meters long. The date flower is a large wispy bunch. The date fruit, the date, comes out of its envelope in spring, turns green from July to August, turns yellow in September and takes on its golden color (sign that it is ripe) from October to November.
To plant a date tree, you need a lot of sun and a moist soil all the time. Some date palms fear temperatures below 10 ° C which prove to be unacceptable. Planting a date palm is therefore not possible for everyone. However, the palm variety that is most resistant to cold is the phoenix dactylifera. Plant the seeds outdoors in late spring after germinating them in a glass of water and wait patiently for small palms to form.
Date palm watering
Sufficient and regular date watering allows rapid growth. You must be attentive to the water needs of the date palm and fill them as soon as necessary. It is in any case essential to keep a certain freshness on the ground.
Date maintenance and size
The maintenance of the date palm is limited to the size and sufficient watering so that the date fruit may prosper. The date palm is pruned in April. It concerns faded or torn by the wind leaves which must be completely removed when the date palm is mature. On the other hand, the size of a young date palm only concerns the tip of the yellow or damaged leaves. Mulching can also help protect your foot from freezing. A potted date palm must be brought in to spend the cold season under cover. In excellent conditions, a date palm can live for 100 years!
Pollination takes place by the wind. There is one male palm per hundred female feet, which explains why we use artificial pollination. Male date palms flower in 3 to 5 years and females in 6 to 10 years. Note that there is no sure method to distinguish a male seed from a female seed.
Date palm diseases
Bayoud disease caused by the mycelium, a fungus, is arguably the most serious disease of the date palm as it causes death. Brittle leaf disease, deadly yellowing of the date palm are some of the diseases that require drastic measures. The date palm also fears parasites such as the red weevil.